Abraham's two lines of heritage and race are known as Banu Ismail and Banu Israel. Banu Israel's centre is Bait-ul-Maqdis and Banu Ismail's center is Makka. Banu Ismail's most famous tribe is the Al-Quraish. Muhammad (PBUH) was born in April 570 AD in the Quraish tribe. His father Abdullah died before He was born and His grandfather Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim died when the Prophet (PBUH) was 8 years old. His mother Amina, died when He was 6 years old. His foster mother's name was Halima Sadia. He laid the black stone (hajr-Aswad) in its place when Holy Ka'ba was being rebuilt. He accompanied his Uncle Abu Talib on his trade journeys to Syria. When the Prophet (PBUH) centered trade business he was named Al-Amin (the trustworthy). He married Khadija (RA) d/o Wahb bin Munaf when He was 25 year of age. They were blessed with 4 daughters and 2 sons. Prophet (PBUH) was 40 years of age when the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and he formally commenced his Prophethood. He announced his Prophethood on the mountain of Faraan. Abu Bakr (RA) was the first man to accept and embrace Islam, then Ali (RA) was the first child who accepted Islam. Khadija (RA) was the first woman who embraced Islam. Uthman (RA) was the sixth man and Umar (RA) was the fortieth to join the Muslim Ummah.
Abu Talib died in the tenth year of Nubuwwah (prophethood) and Khadija (RA) died five days later. The Prophet's (PBUH) journey to Taif took place in 628 CE, on His return, he was met by a party of the Jinn. He was bodily taken to the heavens on the Night of Isra (Miraj). He was greeted by all the Previous Prophets at Bait-ul-Maqdis and he led them all in prayer. Five daily prayers were mae obligatory. During Hajj, the Prophet (PBUH) introducded Islam to the visiting tribes and a number of men from Medina pledged an oath of allegiance to the blessed Prophet (PBUH) during the 12 year of Prophethood. The non-believers of Makka resolved to kill the Prophet (PBUH) and He migrated to Medina with Abu Bakr (RA), the following year.
In the first year of Hijrah, Mosques were built at Medina and Quba. Bilal (RA) called the first Adhan. In the same year, Fasting in the month of Ramadan was made obligatory and giving of Zakat annually was also prescrbed. In the second year of Hijrah. The Muslims came under attack by the Makkan's and the battle of Badr was fought, during which, through outnumbered, the Muslims defeated the Makkans. Qibla was changed from Bait-ul-Maqdis to Makka in the third year of Hijrah. The battle of Uhud took place and the Muslims suffered heavy losses after an initial victory. In the fifth year of Hijrah the battle of the Ditch took place. All the anti-Islam forces allied to siege Medina but were repulsed.
In the sixth year Muslims traveled to Makka for Umrah but they were not allowed to enter Makka, the treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed. In the same year Muslim women were commanded to practice Pardah (put on a veil).The following year, Muslims entered Makka and performed Hajj and the prediction of the Qur'an was fulfilled. The treaty of Hudaybiyah was repealed because of its violation by the Makkans when they helped the Jews of Medina, contrary to the terms of the treaty. The victory of Makka was in 8ah (630CE). The next year the Prophet (PBUH) performed Hajjatul Wada (final Hajj).
The Prophet (PBUH) became ill in 11 ah. and He (PBUH) appointed Abu Bakr (RA) to lead the prayers in his place. The Prophet (PBUH) passed away on 12 Ribul Awwal. His grave is in Medina. The Ansar (people of Medina) held a meeting at Saqeefah and elected Abu Bakr (RA) as the first Caliph of Islam. Then it was endorsed by the Muhagerin (immigrants) in the Prophet's Mosque and he was acepted by all, unanimously.